Internet of Things and its Applications

Security and Future of IoT Ecosystem Question & Answer



Question : 1

Define Encryption and why it is used?



Answer :

It is a process of converting the data of file into an unreadable format to protect the data from attack. It is being widely used in an organization to secure their data.



Question : 2

 Write short notes on the following:

(a) Malware
(b) Phishing 
(c) Active Attack
(d) Vulnerability
(e) Cryptography



Answer :
  • Malware (malicious software) are the software programs designed to damage or do other unwanted actions on a computer system. Some examples of malware include viruses, worms, trojan horses, and spyware. Malware can cause havoc on the computer hard drive by deleting files or directory information.
  • Phishing is an attempt of acquiring sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details, by hacker in an electronic communication.
  • Modification of messages being transmitted, capturing authentication sequences and obtaining extra privileges, creation of false messages etc. are a few active attacks. Active attacks are difficult to prevent because they require protection of all communication facilities and paths at all times. But one can detect and recover from the disruptions caused by them.
  • Vulnerabilities are weaknesses in a system or its design that allow an intruder to execute commands, access unauthorized data, and/ or conduct denial-of-service attacks.
  • Cryptography is technique of securing information and communications through use of codes so that only those person for whom the information is intended can understand it and process it. Thus preventing unauthorized access to information.


Question : 3

What are the key terms of Security?



Answer :

The key terms for security are Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. It is also known as CIA. These three things are considered to be the most important components of the security. Confidentiality means protecting the information and the information remain between the client and organization, and not sharing the information with other people.
Integrity means the reliability and trusted data, trusted data, which refers to real and accurate data. Availability refers to access information from the specified location.




Question : 4

What is Blockchain?



Answer :

It is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record not only financial transactions but virtually everything of value. In simple terms, it is a decentralized distributed database of immutable records that are managed by a group of computers but not owned by any single entity. It is stored as a database or a flat-file.



Question : 5

How does blockchain work?



Answer :

It is consists of immutable records of data called blocks with are linked using cryptography. It is nothing but a process to encrypt and secure data communication from third parties in reading private messages. Once the data has been recorded, it will not be changed. It works like a digital notary with timestamps to avoid tampering of information. 



Question : 6

What do you mean by Encryption?



Answer :

It is a process of converting the data of file into an unreadable format to protect the data from attack. It is being widely used in an organization to secure their data.



Question : 7
  How will you make your smart home more secure?


Answer :

To make your smart home more secure do the following:

  • Give your router a name: Don't stick with the name the manufacture gave it - it might identify the make or model. Give it an unusual name.
  • Change default usernames and passwords: Cybercriminals probably already know the default passwords that come with many IoT products. That makes it easy for them to access your IoT devices and, potentially, the information on them. So, change default usernames and passwords. Use unique, complex password made up of letters, numbers, and symbols.
  • Keep your software up-to-date: Mobile security is important, since you may connect to your smart home through mobile devices. Your IoT device makers also may sent you updates- or you might have to visit their websites to check for them. Be sure to download updates and apply them to your device to help stay safe.


Question : 8

How will you make a password strong?



Answer :

A strong password must:

  • Be eight characters long (characters which include uppercase A-Z, lower case a-z; numbers 0-9; symbols found on the keyboard and spaces which include' ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ - + = { } [ ] \ | : ; " ' < > , . ? / )
  • Not contain user, real or company name.
  • Not contain a complete word and be different from previous passwords.




Question : 9

What is difference between Trojan horse and Worm? 



Answer :

A Trojan horse is a term used to describe malware that appears, to the user, to perform a desirable function but, facilitates unauthorized access to the user's computer system.  A computer worn is a self - replicating computer program. It uses a network to send copies of itself to other nodes and it may do so without any user intervention.



Question : 10

What is DNS spoofing?



Answer :

Domain Name Server (DNS) poisoning or spoofing is a type of cyber- attack that exploits system vulnerabilities in the domain name server to divert traffic away from legitimate servers and directs it towards fake ones.



Question : 11

What is Brute Force Attack?



Answer :

A Brute Force Attack is the simplest method to gain access to a site or server (or anything that is password protected). It tries various combinations of usernames and passwords again and again until it gets in. The longer the password, the more combinations that will need to be tested. However, If the password is weak it could merely take seconds with hardly any effort.



Question : 12

What is Ransomware?



Answer :

Ransomware is a form of malware that encrypts a victim's files. The attacker then demands a ransom from the victim to restore access to the data upon payment.



Question : 13

What is Botnet?



Answer :

Botnets consists of many bots working together, may be used to gain unauthorized access to computer systems and infect computers . For Example, The attack used the Mirai IoT Botnet, Taking control of over 600,000 IoT devices to flood Dyn with traffic in a massive DDoS attack. The devices seemed to be mostly routers and IP cameras. IP cameras are frequently targeted IoT devices.



Question : 14

List few tips to identify phishing.



Answer :

Few tips to identify the phishing are as follows:

  • Do not trust the display name.
  • Look at the content of the email, but do not click it.
  • Do not give away any personal information.


Question : 15

Discuss goal of Brute Force Attack.



Answer :

Goal of Brute Force Attack are as follows:

  • Theft of personal information such as passwords, passphrases and other information used to access online accounts and network resources.
  • Collect credentials to sell to third parties.
  • Defacement of website and other information in the public domain that could damage the reputation of the organization.
  • Redirecting domain to sites holding malicious content.


Question : 16

How IoT and AI are used to track Endangered Species?



Answer :

There are many animals that are endangered or going extinct in various countries So Wild Track's footprint identification technique (FIT) uses IoT and AI algorithms to identify the species, individual, age and gender of an animal from its unique footprint.



Question : 17

What is Passive Attack?



Answer :

Eavesdropping on or monitoring of transmissions is known as passive attack. The goal of eavesdropping is to obtain that information which is being transmitted. Passive attacks are difficult to detect (if they accur) but they can be prevented.



Question : 18

Write Pros and Cons of Symmetric cryptography algorithms.



Answer :

Pros: Faster than asymmetric cryptography.
Cons: Difficult to distribute and protect the shared secret key securely.



Question : 19

Write Pros and Cons of Asymmetric cryptography algorithms.



Answer :

Pros: Easy to manage, scalable
Cons: Difficult to distribute and protect the shared secret key securely.



Question : 20

List some IoT security Weaknesses.



Answer :

Some IoT Security Weaknesses are:

  • Weak, Guessable, or Hardcoded Passwords.
  • Insecure Network services.
  • Use of Insecure or Outdated Components.
  • Lack of Secure Update Mechanism.


Question : 21

List some applications of AI.



Answer :

Some applications of AI are:

  • Natural language processing
  • Chatbots
  • Sales prediction
  • Self-driving card
  • Facial expression recognition
  • Image tagging


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