Web Designing and Publishing

Web Publishing and Browsing Question & Answer



Question : 1

What are the features provided in web hosting?



Answer :

1. It provides either the single page hosting or there are other methods that can be used Used for the premium sites.

2. The web hosting provides database support and provides the use of the on-growing Language.

3. It provides the platform for application development that can use the languages from PHP to ruby, etc.

4. The web hosting platform allows the users to write and install the scripts that can allow Them to use a particular feature of that platform.

5. Layers such as SSL (Secure sockets Layer) or TLS (Transport layer security) used to Provide more options of security for the websites. 



Question : 2

What is Web Hosting?



Answer :

Web hosting is a service of providing online space for storage of web pages. These web pages are made available via World Wide Web. The companies which offer website hosting are known as Web hosts.

The servers on which web site is hosted remain switched on 24 x7. These servers are run by web hosting companies. Each server has its own IP address. Since IP addresses are difficult to remember therefore, webmaster points their domain name to the IP address of the server their website is stored on.

It is not possible to host your website on your local computer, to do so you would have to leave your computer on 24 hours a day. This is not practical and cheaper as well. This is where web hosting companies comes in. 



Question : 3

What are the different types of hosting?



Answer :

There are different types of hosting provided to upload and share their files using the web. 

Shared Hosting

In shared hosting, the hosting company puts thousand of website on the same physical server. Each customer has their own allocation of physical web space and a set of bandwidth limit. As all websites share same physical memory, MYSQL server and Apache server, one website on the server experiencing high traffic load will affect performance of all websites on the server.

Virtual Private Server (VPS)

It is also known as Virtual Dedicated Server. It is a server which is partitioned into smaller servers. In this customer is given their own partition, which is installed with its own operating system. Unlike shared hosting, VPS doesn’t share memory or processor time rather it allocates certain amount of memory and CPU to use which means that any problem on a VPS partition on the same drive will not affect other VPS customers. 

Dedicated Server

In this kind of hosting, single dedicated server is setup for just one customer. It is commonly used by the businesses that need the power, control and security that a dedicated server offers.

Reseller Hosting

A reseller acts as a middle man and sells hosting space of someone else’s server

Grid Hosting

Instead of utilizing one server, Grid Hosting spreads resources over a large number of servers. It is quite stable and flexible. The servers can be added or taken away from the grid without crashing the system. 



Question : 4

What is SGML?



Answer :

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is a standard for how to specify a document markup language or tag set. Such a specification is itself a document type definition (DTD). SGML is not in itself a document language, but a description of how to specify one. It is metadata.

SGML is based on the idea that documents have structural and other semantic elements that can be described without reference to how such elements should be displayed. The actual display of such a document may vary, depending on the output medium and style preferences. Some advantages of documents based on SGML are:

1. They can be created by thinking in terms of document structure rather than appearance characteristics (which may change over time).

2. They will be more portable because an SGML compiler can interpret any document by reference to its document type definition (DTD).

3. Documents originally intended for the print medium can easily be re-adapted for other media, such as the computer display screen 



Question : 5

 What is web publishing ?



Answer :

Web publishing is the process of publishing original content on the Internet.

The process includes building and uploading websites, updating the associated webpages, and posting content to these webpages online. Web publishing comprises of personal, business, and community websites in addition to e-books and blogs.

The content meant for web publishing can include text, videos, digital images, artwork, and other forms of media. Publishers must possess a web server, a web publishing software, and an Internet connection to carry out web publishing.

Web publishing is also known as online publishing



Question : 6

What is difference between HTTP and HTML ?



Answer :

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is a well-known markup language used to develop web pages. It has been around for a long time and is commonly used in webpage design. HTML on the other hand, stands for Hypertext transfer protocol. It is a means of data Communication for the World Wide web. It is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, information systems. HTTP is a TCP/IP-based protocol used for transferring WebPages from servers to clients. Hypertext markup language- the formatting used to design WebPages. HTTP is the code in a web address URL that specifies that you are looking for a common website. Basically this protocol establishes the standard that computers on the internet use to communicate and transfer data through web browsers. HTML is the language of web pages. A word document contains text and formatting code for example. The text code is the content and the formatting code tells word how to display the text on the screen/page.

HTML is very similar. It content (which is easily edited). It’s the formatting code that determines how a web page’s content will look in a browser. HTTP is the protocol that is used to request and deliver web page content (as files). When your Browser request a web page from a web server, it uses HTTP. But the owner of the web page uses FTP protocol to actually put the files on the server (using the same address),or delete them from the server because there will be new files, or uploading new files. But both protocols use the same link (the internet).  



Question : 7

Difference between stateless protocol and state full protocol ?



Answer :

Stateless protocol:

Stateless Protocol is a network protocol in which client send Request to the server and server response back as per the given state. Examples of stateless Server restriction is not needed to keep the server information. In stateless, server and client Are loosely coupled and can act independently. Server design is simple to implement. Server handles transactions in a very quicker way. 

Stateful protocol:

 stateful protocol is a network protocol in which if client send a request to The server then it expects some kind of response, in case of no response then it resend the Request. Examples of stateful protocol is FTP and Telnet. In stateful, a server is required to Maintain the current state and session information. Server design is comparatively complex And difficult to implement. Server is slow comparatively to stateless.



Question : 8

 What are the advantages and disadvantages of connectionless protocol?



Answer :

 Advantages of connectionless protocol are as follows:

a. It sends the packet without handshaking.

b. It is faster than connection-oriented protocol.

c. The header size of the packet is smaller as compared to the packets in connection-oriented services.

Disadvantages of connectionless protocol are as follows:

a. It is not reliable and cannot ensure the data transmission to the destination.

b. Packets decide the route while transmission based on the network congestion.

c. It does not have a fixed path.

d. Different packets do not necessarily follow the same path. 



Question : 9

Where is the dedicated hosting service used?



Answer :

Dedicated hosting services allow the users to have their own space or their own web server.

a. It can be handled by the user having the full control over the operating system and the Resources it user.

b. It does not allow the user to own the server but it is just another type of self-managed Server.

c. They are less costly and they allow better services than the shared ones due to the Reliability.

d. It requires lots of responsibility and maintenance to manage the resources and to Provide the services to the dedicated servers.

e. It provides higher security as it is better than the other servers like shared servers that Compromise on security as it is shared between many. 



Question : 10

Difference between connection oriented and connectionless protocol



Answer :

With a connectionless protocol, clients connect to the server, make a request, get a response, and then disconnect. For the Internet, HTTP is a connectionless protocol. With a connection-oriented protocol, clients connect to the server, make a request, get a response, and then maintain the connection to handle future requests. An example of a connection-oriented protocol is File Transfer protocol (FTP). When we connect to an FTP server, the connection remains open after you download a file. The maintenance of this connection consumes system resources. A server with too many open connections quickly gets overloaded. Consequently, many FTP servers are configured to allow only 250 open connections at one time, so only 250 users can access the FTP server at once.

Connectionless protocols differ from connection-oriented protocols in the way requests and responses to requests are handled. HTTP is a connectionless protocol. When clients connect to the HTTP server being a connectionless protocol, they make a request are used after the transaction is finished. Consequently with low system overhead. The drawback to connectionless protocols is that when the same client requests more data, the Connection must be re-established. To web users, this means a delay whenever they request more information.



Question : 11

What is a cookie? How are they used on Internet?



Answer :

 A cookie is information that a web site puts on our hard disk so that is can remember something about us at a later time. Typically, a cookie records your preferences when using a particular site. Using the web’s preferences when using a particular site. Using the Web’s Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), each request for a web page is independent of all other requests. For this reasons, the web page server has no memory of what pages it has send to a user previously or anything about our previous visits. A cookie is a mechanism that allows the server to store its own information about a user on the user’s own computer. We can view the cookies that have been stored on our hard disk. The location of the cookies depends on the browser. Internet explorer stores each cookie as a separate file under a Windows subdirectory. Cookies have been of concern for internet privacy, since they can be used for tracking the browsing of a user. HTTP cookies are used for user authentication, user tracking and maintaining User-specific third-party cookies also allows for tracking across multiple sites. 



Question : 12

what is CGI? Explain.



Answer :

The Common Gateway interface (CGI) is a standard way for a web server to pass a web user’s request to an application program and to receive data back to forward to the user. When the user requests a web page (for example, by clicking on a highlighted word or entering a website address), the server sends back the requested page. However, when a user fills out a form on a web page and form sends it in, it usually needs to be processed by an application program. The web server typically passes the form information to a small application program that processes the data and may send back a confirmation message. This method Gateway Interface (CGI).It is part of the web’s Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). If we are creating a website and want a CGI application to get control, you specify the name of the a programmer can write a CGI application in a number of different languages can write such as C,C++, Java, and PERL.  



Question : 13

what is WWW? Explain briefly with the help of WWW architecture. 



Answer :

The World Wide Web is the part of the internet that contains websites and WebPages. It was invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. It is basically a system of internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) that supports links to other documents as well as graphics, audio and video files. Architecture of WWW

WWW is basically a distributed client-server service. It this, a client can access the services from a server using a browser. These services are usually distributed over many locations called sites or websites. From the user’s point of view web consists of a vast worldwide collection of documents called web pages. Each web page can contain link to other pages anywhere in the World. By clicking on such link user can access another web page. Such a text or image that enables in the user to link to another web page is the string of text that points to another web Page is called hypertext. Hypermedia is enhanced form of a hyperlink which not only links to the other pages or other sections within the same page but can also link with various medium like sound, animation, movie clip etc. Hypermedia is grouping of different media like sound, graphics, animations and text in a single file. These hyperlinks are created with the help of specialized language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). In order to access these web pages on different sites, each of these pages has a specific address called Uniform Resource Locator (URL).



Question : 14

What are components of web publishing?



Answer :

Web publishing is a large process and identical to book publishing. It starts right from writing the first word of the first page to the moment it gets published. Likewise, Web publishing includes different stages till it becomes available for the premiere. The process includes deciding a name of domain, registering it with the competent registrar, starts writing contents for the site, designing pages for them, uploading the site with a host. Every stage is crucial and one has to be careful while choosing perfect software for designing and uploading and deciding about the most appropriate host in terms of facilities offered and investment as well. There are basically five phases in web publishing as follows- 

  •  Domain name planning and registration
  • Web hosting
  • Web design and development
  • Promotion
  • Maintenance 






Question : 15

What factors should be kept in mind while choosing domain ?



Answer :

Choosing a Domain Name

Before one rush out and choose your domain name or name your website, you would like to consider the following points

Your Domain Name should be Your Website Name

Domain name that matches one’s brand name is very important. The very name that one uses to advertise one’s product is the name that one will want for one’s domain, because that is the first thing that people will try in their browser. 

Your domain name should not be too long

Domain names can be of any length up to 67 characters.one doesn’t have to settle for an obscure domain name like bgo.com when one mean’s blogspot.com If one manages to get a short domain name though, the key is to make sure it's meaningful combination of characters

Your domain name should be hyphens free

Domain name with hyphenation has got some advantage as well as some disadvantages. Search engines can distinguish your keyword better if you have domain name with hyphen. Disadvantage is that is it easy to forget hyphens when typing a name. Moreover, when somebody recommends one’s site to his./her friends verbally having hyphens in your domain name leads to more potential errors that when the name does not contain hyphens. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid domain name with hyphens

Your domain name should not contain plural words

Plural form of the domain name always creates loss, since the chance of the visitor failing to type the "s" in the name is very great. For example, somebody wants to log on to websites.com but mistakenly leaves website.com may lead to a loss of clients if the products are the same on the both domains 

Your top level domain name should portray the nature of your site

If your site is of a charitable institution or a voluntary organization, never get a domain name with .com Neither forget to choose country specific top level domain if one is working for the clients in a particular country only. If one is doing business for profit .com is the best top level domain. And if one is doing business in India, select in as country specific top level domain. 



Question : 16

Discuss about the different top-level domains in websites. 



Answer :

Generally there is no any specific classification among websites, but we can identify some genres like: Search Engines, Informative, Social Networking, Audio/Video Sharing, E-commerce etc. 

In a way, websites can be categorized by their top-level domains like: 

• .com : Commercial websites 

• .org : Organizational websites 

• .gov : Government websites 

• .edu : Educational websites 

• .mil : Military websites 

• .info : Information websites etc. 




Question : 17

 What are the features provided in web hosting?



Answer :
  1. It provides either the single page hosting or there are other hosting methods that can be used for the premium sites.
  2. The web hosting provides database support and provides the use of the on-growing language.
  3.  It provides the platform for application development that can the languages from PHP to Ruby, etc.
  4. The web hosting platform allows the users to write and install the scripts that can allow them to use a particular feature of that platform.
  5. Layers such as SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or TLS (Transport layer security) used to provide more options of security for the websites.


Question : 18

What is Web Hosting?



Answer :

Web hosting id the act of renting space and bandwidth through a company so that we may publish our websites online.



Question : 19

What are the different types of hosting?



Answer :

There are different types of hosting provided to upload and share their files using the web.

a.  Free web hosting service: It provides limited services and offers it to advertisements and other services with limitations.

b.  Shared web hosting service: where a sever shares many websites all place 

c.  Reseller web hosting: This is the web hosting that allows clients to provide web hosting to others.

d. Virtual Dedicated Server: This is also known as also known as a Virtual private Server (VPS). This provided the divided server resources in the virtual servers and the method that doesn't relate directly to the hardware.

e.  Home server: This is a single machine server that can be thought as a personal server that is used to host one or more websites using the connection.                                                                               



Question : 20

Difference between HTTP and HTML.



Answer :

HTMLstands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a wall-known markup language used to develop web pages. It has been around for a long time and is commonly used in webpage design. HTTP, on the other hand, stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is a means of data communication for the Word Wide Web. It is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is a TCP/I-based protocol used for transferring from servers to clients. HyperText Markup Language - the formatting language used to design webpages. HTTP just is a protocol use to transfer data on internet. HTML is a language to create a web page. HTTP is the code in a web address URL that specifies that you are looking for a common website. Basically this protocol establishes the standard that computers on the internet use to communicate and transfer data through web browsers.

HTML is the language of web pages. A Word document contains text and formatting code for example. The text code is the content and the formatting code tells word how to display the text on the screen / page.
HTML is very similar. It contains the content (which is easily edited). It's the formatting code that determines how a web page's content will look in a browser.

HTTP is the protocol that is used to request and deliver web page content (as files).When your browser requests a web page from a web server, it uses HTTP. But the owner of the web page uses FTP protocol to actually put the files on the web server (using the same address), or delete them from the server because there will be new files, or uploading new files. But both protocols use the same link (the internet).



Question : 21

Difference between stateless protocol and stateful protocol



Answer :

Stateless protocol: Stateless Protocol is a network protocol in which client send request to the server and server response back as per the given state. Examples of stateless protocol are HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol), UDP ( Use datagram Protocol) & DNS (Domain Name System). In Stateless, server restriction is not needed to keep the server information. In stateless, server and client are loosely coupled and can act independently. server design is simple to implement. Server handles transactions in a very quicker way.

Stateful protocol: Stateful Protocol is a network protocol in which if client send a request to the server them it expects some kind of response, in case of no response then it resend the request. Examples of stateful protocol is FTP and Telnet. In stateful, a server is required to maintain the current state and session information. Server design is comparatively complex and difficult to implement. Server is slow comparatively to stateless.



Question : 22
What are the advantages and disadvantages of connectionless protocol?


Answer :

Advantages of connectionless protocol are as follows:

a.  It sends the packet without handshaking.

b.  It is faster than connection-oriented protocol.

c.  The header size of the packet is smaller as compared to the packets in connection-oriented services.

Disadvantages of connectionless protocol are as follows:

a.  It is not reliable and cannot ensure the data transmission based on the destination.

b.  Packets decide the route while transmission based on the network congestion.

c.  It does not have a fixed path.

d.  Different packets do not necessarily follow the same path.



Question : 23

Where is the dedicated hosting service used?



Answer :

Dedicated hosting services allow the users to have their own space or their own web server.

a.  It can be handled by the user having the full control over the operating system and the resources it uses.

b.  It does not allow the user to own the server but it is just another type of self-managed server.

c.  They are less costly and they allow better services than the shared ones due to the reliability.

d.  It requires lots of responsibility and maintenance to manage the resource and to provide the services to the dedicated services.

e.  It provides higher security as it is better than the other servers like shared servers that compromise on security as it is shared between many. 



Question : 24

What is the scope of web hosting services?



Answer :

Web hosting scope is higher due to the increase of the traffic when the web page of the website is accessed. The files are uploaded using for the FTP (File Transfer Protocol) using the web hosting and its services. web interface is being used for the deployment of the website using the web hosting services and techniques. ISPs (Internet Service providers) provide the services to the clients that are from the organizations or on the individual basis and provide the hosting solutions. It provides personal website hosting free to deploy and use. It also allow the accessing to be performed of the websites that is having the higher expense.



Question : 25

 Explain web Publishing. Write about any publishing tool.



Answer :

Web publishing tools are applications that are used to design and build websites for either the internet or an internet. They range from simple text editors that can generate web application code through to highly sophisticated and feature-rich web authoring packages. Some web publishing tools must be installed on a workstation. Others are server-based and are accessed via a web-interface. Web publishing tools are also called web authoring tools.

This websites provides an overview of current web publishing application software. It is intended for individuals and small business owners that wish to establish a new website or want to upgrade an existing site to one that is more attractive, functional and maintainable.

We will need the following software before we begin creating our web pages.

FrontPage 2003 from Microsoft is one of the best web publishing tools on the market today. This sophisticated web authoring application provides an intuitive user interface. Although this web publishing tool is suitable for new web designers, it also provides advanced features that only professional web publishers would want to use. Because it is so simple to switch between the WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) user interface and the "HTMLCode" interface, one can easily view the HTML Code as pages  are created. Frontpage also provides functionality to insert user-defined code into a page. This code is protected when changes are subsequently made using the WYSIWYG user interface.

It has numerous features that enable software objects to be reused, thereby saving much development and maintenance effort. These features include support for shared borders, website "themes", "included" pages and system generated navigation bars and titles.

It also provides XML capabilities that allow websites to interact with other websites over the internet. In addition to integrating with MS Access to provide data-driven functionality, FrontPage 2003 websites can also interface with SQL server and XML database and other database using ODBC.




Question : 26

Difference between connection oriented and connectionless protocol



Answer :

With a connectionless protocol, clients connect to the server, make a request, get a response, and then disconnect. For the Internet, HTTP is a connectionless protocol.

With a connection-oriented protocol, clients connect to the server, make a request, get a response, and then maintain the connection to handle future requests. An example of a connection-oriented protocol is File Transfer Protocol (FTP). When we connect to an FTP server, the connection remains open after you download a file. The maintenance of this connection consumes system resources. A server with too many open connections quickly gets overloaded. Consequently, many FTP servers are configured to allow only 250 open connections at one time, so only 250 users can access the FTP server at once.

Connectionless protocols differ from connection-oriented protocols in the way requests and responses to requests are handled. HTTP is a connectionless protocol. When clients connect to the HTTP server being a connectionless protocol, they make a request, get a response, and then disconnect, Because the connection is not maintained, no system resources are used after the transaction is finished. Consequently, HTTP servers are limited only by active connections and can generally handle thousands of transactions with low system overhead.

The drawback to connectionless protocols is that when the same client requests more data, the connection must be re-established. To web users, this means a delay whenever they request more information.



Question : 27

What is a cookie? How are they used on Internet?



Answer :

A cookie is information that a web site puts on our hard disk so that is can remember something about us at a later time. Typically, a cookie records your preferences when using a particular site. Using the web's preferences when using a particular site. Using the Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), each request for a web page is independent of all other requests. For this reasons, the web page server has no memory of what pages it has send to a user previously or anything about our previous visits. A cookie is a mechanism that allow the server to store its own information about a user on the user's own computer. We can view the cookies that have been stored on our hard disk. The location of the cookies depends on the browser. Internet explorer stores each cookie as a separate file under a Windows subdirectory.

Cookies have been of concern for internet privacy, since they can be used for tracking the browsing of a user. HTTP cookies are used for user authentication, user tracking, and maintaining user-specific information (preferences, electronic shopping cart, ect). Cookies are also used to track users across a website. Third-party cookies also allow for tracking across multiple sites.



Question : 28

 What is CGI? Explain.



Answer :

The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard way for a web server to pass a web user's request to an application program and to receive data back to forward to the user. When the user requests a web page (for example, by clicking on a highlighted word or entering a websites address), the server sends back the requested page. However, When a user fills out a from on a web page and sends it in, it usually needs to be processed by an application program. The web server typically passes the form information to a small application program that processes the data and may send back a confirmation message. This method or convention for passing data back and forth between the server and the application is called the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). It is part of the web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

If we are creating a website and want a CGI application to get control, you specify the name of the application in the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that we code in an HTML file.

A programmer can write a CGI application in a number of different languages can write such as C, C++, Java, and PERL. 



Question : 29

What is web hosting and web publishing?



Answer :

Creating a website and placing it on the web server is called web publishing. A website is a collection of HTML pages with the home page typically named INDEX.HTML. website are designed using web authoring software which provides a graphical layout capability or by hand coding in HTML or both. It includes creating and uploading websites, updating webpages, and posting blogs online. the published contents may include text, images, videos, and other types of media.

Web hosting is the service that makes our website available to be viewed by others on the internet. A web host provides space on its server, so that other computers around the world can access our website by means of a network or modem. the users want to view our website, all they need to do is type our website address into their browser. Their computer will then connect to our server and our webpages will be delivered to them through the browser.

Most web hosting companies require that we own our domain name in order to host with them. If you do not have a domain name, the web hosting companies will help us purchase one.

The basic features of a web hosting plan include:

  • Disk space
  • Bandwidth or Data transfer
  • E- mail accounts
  • FTP access


Question : 30

What is WWW? Explain briefly with the help of WWW architecture.



Answer :

The Word Wide Web is the part of the internet that contains websites. It was invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. It is basically a system of internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) that supports links to other documents as well as graphics, audio and video files.

Architecture of WWW
WWW is basically a distributed client-server service. It this a client can access the services from a server using a browser. These services are usually distributed over many locations called sites or websites. From the user's point of view web consists of a vast worldwide collection of documents called web pages. Each web page can contain link to other pages anywhere in the world. By clicking on such link user can access another web page, Such a text or image that enables the user to link to another web page is the string of text that points to another web page is called hypertext. Hypermedia is enhanced from of a hyperlink which not only links to the other pages or other sections within the same page but can also link with various medium like sound, animation, movie clip etc. Hypermedia is grouping of different media like sound, graphics, animations and text in a single file. These hyperlinks are created with the help of specialized language called Hypertext Mark up Language (HTML). In order to access these web pages on different sites, each of these pages has a specific address called Uniform Resource Locator (URL).



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