Element of Operating System GUI
Element of Operating System GUI
The taskbar is the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen. It has three main sections:
- The Start button , which opens the Start menu.
- The middle section, which shows you which programs & files you have open & allows you to quickly switch between them.
- The notification area, which includes a clock and icons (small pictures) that communicate the status of certain programs and computer settings.
Keep track of your windows
If you open one or more program/file at a time, it's hard to see what else is what you've already opened.
Whenever you open a program, folder, or file, Windows creates a corresponding button on the taskbar.
The button shows an icon that represents the open program. In the picture below, two programs are open—Calculator and Minesweeper—and each has its own button on the taskbar. It also highlights the icon whose window is active. Click a taskbar button to switch to that window
The notification area
The notification area, at the right of the taskbar, includes a clock and a group of icons. These icons communicate the status of something on your computer or provide access to certain settings.
When you move your pointer to a particular icon, you will see that icon's name or the status of a setting. Double-clicking an icon in the notification area usually opens the program or setting associated with it. For example, double-clicking the volume icon opens the volume controls.
Windows hides icons in the notification area when you haven't used them in a while. If icons become hidden, click the Show hidden icons button to temporarily display the hidden icons.
Click the Show hidden icons button to display all icons in the notification area
Icons and shortcuts
Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs, and other items. When you first start Windows, you'll see at least one icon on your desktop: The Recycle Bin. Some examples of desktop icons are shown in picture.
Double-clicking a desktop icon starts or opens the item it represents.
Adding and removing icons from the desktop
You can choose which icons appear on the desktop—you can add or remove an icon at any time. If you want easy access from the desktop to your favorite files or programs, you can create shortcuts to them. A shortcut is an icon that represents a link to an item, rather than the item itself. When you double-click a shortcut, the item opens. If you delete a shortcut, only the shortcut is removed, not the original item. You can identify shortcuts by the arrow on their icon.
Common desktop icons include Computer, your personal folder, the Recycle Bin, and Control Panel.
1. Right-click an empty area of the desktop, and then click Personalize.
2. In the left pane, click Change desktop icons.
3. Under Desktop icons, select the check box for each icon that you want to add to the desktop, or clear the check box for each icon that you want to remove from the desktop, and then click OK.
To move a file from a folder to the desktop
1. Open the folder that contains the file.
2. Drag the file to the desktop.
Moving icons around
Windows stacks icons in columns on the left side of the desktop. But you're not stuck with that arrangement. You can move an icon by dragging it to a new place on the desktop.
You can also have Windows automatically arrange your icons. Right-click an empty area of the desktop, click View, and then click Auto arrange icons. Windows stacks your icons in the upper-left corner and locks them in place. To unlock the icons so that you can move them again, click Auto arrange icons again, clearing the check mark next to it.
Selecting multiple icons
To move or delete a bunch of icons at once, you must first select all of them. Click an empty area of the desktop and drag the mouse. Surround the icons that you want to select with the rectangle that appears. Then release the mouse button. Now you can drag the icons as a group or delete them.
Hiding desktop icons
If you want to temporarily hide all of your desktop icons without removing them, right-click an empty part of the desktop, click View, and then click Show desktop icons to clear the check mark from that option. Now no icons are displayed on the desktop. You can get them back by clicking Show desktop icons again.
Qus. What are various categories of software?
Ans: Software are classified into following categories –
(i) System Software
a. Operating System
b. Language Processor
(ii) Application Software
c. Customized software
d. Developer Tools
Qus. What is the difference between an interpreter and a compiler?
Interpreter: Interpreter is a type of system software that translates and executes instructions written in a computer program lini-by-line, unit by unit etc. It is slower in execution because each time when you run the program translation is required.
Compiler: Compiler is another type of system software that translates and executes instructions written in a computer program in one go. Once compiled program need not to translate again so it works faster.
Qus. What is application software? Why it is required?
Ans: Application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specific task. Such as for word processing there are many application software like MS-Word, Wordpad etc. These software are required to perform special task using the computer like painting, recording, typing, data handling etc.
Qus. What is system software?
Ans: The software that controls internal computer operations is called system software. It manages all the resources of a system. Its example is Operating System.
Qus. Discuss the role of utility software in the context of computer performance?
Ans: Utilities are those application programs that assist the computer by performing housekeeping functions like backing up disk or scanning/cleaning viruses or arranging information etc. its example is Antivirus software.
Qus. What is the importance of an OS?
Ans: An operating system is a program which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware. It manages all the resources of the computer system. It provides and environment to the user to work with. All the application are installed after the operating system is installed. It manages memory, processing, storage, memory etc.
Qus. What is the utility of these software?
(a) disk fragmentor (b) backup software
(a) disk fragmentor: A file is fragmented when it becomes too large for your computer to store in a single location on a disk. When this happens, your computer splits the file up and stores in pieces. You can use fragmented files, but it takes your computer longer to access them.
(b) Backup software: This utility program facilitates the backing-up of disk. Back-up means duplicating the disk information so that in case of any damage or data-loss, this backed-up data may be used.
Qus. Describe the role of Operating System as a resource Manager.
Ans: A computer system has many resources (hardware and software), which may be require to complete a task. The commonly required resources are input/output devices, memory, file storage space, CPU etc. The operating system acts as a manager of the above resources and allocates them to specific programs and users, whenever necessary to perform a particular task. Therefore operating system is the resource manager i.e. it can manage the resource of a computer system internally. The resources are processor, memory, files, and I/O devices. In simple terms, an operating system is the interface between the user and the machine.
Operating System Management Tasks
1. Processor management which involves putting the tasks into order and pairing them into manageable size before they go to the CPU.
2. Memory management which coordinates data to and from RAM (random-access memory) and determines the necessity for virtual memory.
3. Device management which provides interface between connected devices.
4. Storage management which directs permanent data storage.
5. Application which allows standard communication between software and your computer.
6. User interface which allows you to communicate with your computer.
Qus. What are the advantages of parallel computing?
Ans: Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously. Large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which can then be solved at the same time. It refers to the simultaneous working of multiple processors to solve a computational problem. Its advantages are –
(i) It saves time and the cost too.
(ii) It makes easier to solve larger or complex problems.
(iii) It provides efficient use of underlying hardware.
(iv) It can utilize the resources available remotely.